23Na and 7Li NMR Studies of Mammalian Cells: Assessment of Cation Transport and Cytoskeletal Structure with Application to Manic Depressive Disease

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23Na and 7Li NMR Studies of Mammalian Cells: Assessment of Cation Transport and Cytoskeletal Structure with Application to Manic Depressive Disease

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J.W Pettegrew and D.E. Woessner

I. Introduction
A. Sodium Biology
The regulation of Na+ trans-membrane fluxes and intracellular Na+
concentrations, is of fundamental importance to human biological processes.
Exchange processes serve to alter the chemical state of the ion and the
position of carefully controlled equilibria. Alterations in Na+ trans­
membrane unidirectional rate constants with resultant alterations in
intracellular Na+ concentration have been implicated in a number of human
disease processes such as cystic fibrosis (Sorscher et al 1982; Katz 1978;
Taylor et al 1979), essential hypertension (Clegg et al 1982; Canessa et al
1980; Duhm et al 1982; Garay et al 1980; Davidson et al 1982; Blaustein
1977), manic-depressive disease (Naylor et al 1976; Pandey et al 1977; Dorus
et al 1979), and cellular proliferative responses during mitogenesis and
oncogenesis (Cone et al 1971; Cameron et al 1980; Koch et al 1979; Rozenquat
et al 1980).

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23Na and 7Li NMR Studies of Mammalian Cells: Assessment of Cation Transport and Cytoskeletal Structure with Application to Manic Depressive Disease